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CAS number: 110-17-8
ChemSpider: 10197150
UNII: 88XHZ13131
EC Number: 203-743-0
DrugBank: DB04299
KEGG: C00122
Chebi: 18012
ATC code: D05AX01
Molecular formula: C4H4O4
Molar mass: 116.07 g / mol
Appearance: White solid
Density: 1.635 g / cm3, solid
Melting point: 287 ° C
Solubility in water: 0.63 g / 100 mL
Acid (pKa): pka1 = 3.03, pka2 = 4.44
EU classification: Irritant (Xi)
R-phrases: R36
S-phrases: (S2) S26
Other names: Trans-butenedioic acid

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General Information

Chemical formula C4H4O4 is a compound in the category of trans-butene dioic acid, unsaturated carboxylic acids with crystals in the form of small prisms with open formula HO2CCH = CHCO2H. It is also called ethylene dicarboxylic acid. Fumaric acid coded E297, found in most vegetables and fruits and is a natural acid. It is usually found in fungi and liver. It is the (cis-) isomer of matureic acid. White odorless granule or crystalline powder. Less soluble in water and ether, soluble in alcohol and very little soluble in chloroform.

Production and Reactions

Commercial production is carried out by sugar fermentation and chemical synthesis. Feomidium can be produced by side reactions under appropriate temperature and conditions. Salts and esters are known as fumarates. As a result of hydration of formic acid, conversion to malic acid is observed.

Usage areas

Fumaric acid is used in powder food production because it has low moisture retention in this sector. It can be used as acidity regulator without changing the taste of foods. Fruit juices, gelatinous desserts, chilled biscuit systems, wines, green foods, and sodium benzoate are used as preservatives, while fumaric acid is preferred to regulate acidity. In rye and sour dough breads, the aroma density can be adjusted with fumaric acid in the dry mixture stage. It is used to improve pore structure in muffin type foods. It is used to extend the life of the confectionery because the moisture absorption rate is very low. Also used as anti-caking. It is used in paint and fast-drying inks.

It was observed that dimethyl fumarate decreased the progression of disability in multiplsclerosis after certain stages.

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